İki Kere Özel Öğrenciler: Öğrenme Güçlüğü Olan Üstün Yetenekliler
Çok küçük yaştan itibaren farklı düşünceler, projeler. Ancak okul yaşamında başarısızlıklar. Yeteneğin ve zorluğun arasında sıkışmış bir çocuk nasıl tanılanmalı? Bu durum sadece zeka testleri ile anlaşılabilir mi? Bu araştırmada, bu sorulara cevap verebilmek için öğrenme güçlüğü olan üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin özelliklerinin ve tanılanmasının açıklanması amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda üstün yetenek, öğrenme güçlüğü kavramları öncelikle ele alınmış, ardından öğrenme güçlüğü olan üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin özellikleri ve tanılanması, ulusal ve uluslararası alan yazınla birlikte açıklanmıştır. Üstün yeteneklerin ve güçlüklerin araya gelerek oluşturduğu bu farklı öğrencilerin doğru tanılanması ve yönlendirilmesi için ilgili çalışmalarla beraber Türkiye’de yapılması gerekenler son bölümde tartışılmıştır.
Alsop, G. (2003). Asynchrony: Intuitively valid and theoretically reliable. Roeper Review, 25(3), 118–127.
Altun, T., & Uzuner, F. G. (2016). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin eğitimine yönelik görüşleri, The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 44(33-49).
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Assouline, S. G., Foley Nicpon, M., & Whiteman, C. (2010). Cognitive and psychosocial characteristics of gifted students with written language disability. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54, 102-115.
Baldwin, L., Omdal, S. N., & Pereles, D. (2015). Beyond stereotypes: Understanding, recognizing, and working with twice-exceptional learners. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(4), 216-225.
Baum, S. (1990). The gifted/learning disabled: A paradox for teachers. from preventing school failure. The Education Digest 55(8), 54–56.
Baum. S. M. (1990). Gifted but learning disabled: A puzzling paradox. Retrieved on April 30, 2020, http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/eric/e479.html
Baum, S., & Novak, C. (2010). Why isn’t talent development on the IEP? SEM and the twice exceptional learner. Gifted Education International, 26, 249-260.
Beckmann, E., & Minnaert, A. (2018). Non-cognitive characteristics of gifted students with learning disabilities: An in-depth systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 504. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00504
Berninger, V. W. (2006). Research-supported ideas for implementing reauthorized IDEA with intelligent professional psychological services. Psychology in the Schools, 43(7), 781-796.
Berninger, V., & Swanson, H. L. (2013). Diagnosing and treating specific learning disabilities in reference to the brain’s working memory system. In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (2nd ed., pp. 169–185). New York: Guilford Press.
Besnoy, K. D., Swoszowski, N. C., Newman, J. L., Floyd, A., Jones, P., & Byrne, C. (2015). The advocacy experiences of parents of elementary age, twice-exceptional children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 59, 108-123.
Bianco, M., & Leech, N. L. (2010). Twice-exceptional learners: Effects of teacher preparation and disability labels on gifted referrals. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(4), 319-334.
Bildiren, A. (2018a). Developmental characteristics of gifted children aged 0–6 years: parental observations. Early Child Development and Care, 188(8), 997-1011.
Bildiren, A. (2018b). Opinions of primary school teachers on the definition, identification and education of gifted children. International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences, 9(33), 1363-1380.
Bildiren, A., & Fırat, T. (2020). Giftedness or disability? Living with paradox. Education 3-13, 48(6), 746–760.
Bisland, A. (2004). Using learning-strategies instruction with students who are gifted and learning disabled. Gifted Child Today, 27(3), 52-58.
Boyle, J. R., Rosen, S. M., & Forchelli, G. (2016). Exploring metacognitive strategy use during note-taking for students with learning disabilities. Education 3-13, 44(2), 161-180.
Brody, L. E., & Mills, C. J. (1997). Gifted children with learning disabilities: A review of the issues. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(3), 282-296.
Brown, E. F., & Abernethy, S. H. (2009). Policy implications at the state and district level with RTI for gifted students. Gifted Child Today, 32(3), 52 – 57.
Bryan, T., Burstein, K., & Ergul, C. (2004). The social-emotional side of learning disabilities: A science-based presentation of the state of the art. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(1), 45-51.
Büttner, G., & Hasselhorn, M. (2011). Learning disabilities: Debates on definitions, causes, subtypes, and responses. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 58(1), 75-87.
Coleman, M. R. (2005). Academic strategies that work for gifted students with learning disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38, 28-32.
Cornoldi, C., Giofre, D., Orsini, A., & Pezzuti, L. (2014). Differences in the intellectual profile of children with intellectual vs. learning disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(9), 2224-2230.
Çakıroğlu, O. (2017). Öğrenme güçlüğü olan çocuklarin genel özellikleri. M. A. Melekoğlu ve O. Çakiroğlu (Ed). Özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan çocuklar (ss. 49-73). Ankara: Vize Yayıncılık.
Daniels, S., & Piechowski, M. (2009). Living with intensity: emotional development of gifted children, adolescents, and adults. Tucson, AZ: Great Potential Press.
Dole, S. F. (1999). Identity formation in college students with giftedness and learning disabilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation (Doctoral Dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9949493).
Fırat, T (2019). Öğrenme güçlüğü olan üstün yetenekli çocuklara yönelik okulöncesi öğretmenlerinin görüşleri, I. Uluslararası Katılımlı Özgül Öğrenme Güçlüğü Kongresi, İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
Fırat, T., & Koçak, D. (2018). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin öğrenme güçlüğünün tanımına ilişkin görüşleri. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 18(2), 915-931.
Fırat, T., & Koçak, D. (2019). Başarılı okuyucular ile öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin metni anlamak için kullandıkları bilişsel ve üstbilişsel stratejiler. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 27(2), 669-681.
Firat, T. (2020). A Multi-Way intervention to improve the social acceptance of a student with learning disabilities. International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(2), 123-136.
Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2018). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. Guilford Publications.
Foley Nicpon, M., Allmon, A., Sieck, B., & Stinson, R. D. (2011). Empirical investigation of twice-exceptionality: Where have we been and where are we going? Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(1), 3-17.
Foley‐Nicpon M, Assouline S. G. (2020). High ability students with coexisting disabilities: Implications for school psychological practice. Psychol Schs. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22342
Forness, S. R., & Kavale, K. A. (1996). Treating social skill deficits in children with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of the research. Learning Disability Quarterly, 19(1), 2-13.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2001). Helping teachers formulate sound test accommodation decisions for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(3), 174-181.
Gagne, F. (2005). From gifts to talents: The DMGT as a developmental model. In R.J. Sternberg & J.E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (2nd ed.) (98–119). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences.Ney York: A member of Perseus Book Group.
Geake, J. G. (2008). High abilities at fluid analogizing: A cognitive neuroscience construct of giftedness. Roeper Review, 30, 187–195.
Gilman, B. J., Lovecky, D. V., Kearney, K., Peters, D. B., Wasserman, J. D., Silverman, L. K., . . . Rimm, S. B. (2013). Critical issues in the identification of gifted students with coexisting disabilities: The twice-excpeptional. SAGE Open, 3(3). doi:10.1177/2158244013505855
Gross, M. (2003). Exceptionally gifted children. London: Routledge.
Gross, M. U. (2006). Exceptionally gifted children: Long-term outcomes of academic acceleration and nonacceleration. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 29(4), 404-429.
Heiman, T., & Precel, K. (2003). Students with learning disabilities in higher education: Academic strategies profile. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(3), 248-258.
Handwerk, M. L., & Marshall, R. M. (1998). Behavioral and emotional problems of students with learning disabilities, serious emotional disturbance, or both conditions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(4), 327-338.
Huntington, D. D., & Bender, W. N. (1993). Adolescents with learning disabilities at risk? Emotional well-being, depression, suicide. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26(3), 159-166.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of (IDEA) 2004. 20 U. S. C. §1400 et seq. (2004).
Kanevsky, L. S. (1990). Pursuing qualitative differences in the flexible use of problem-solving strategy by young children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 13, 115–140.
Kavale, K. A., & Mostert, M. P. (2004). Social skills interventions for individuals with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(1), 31-43.
Kavale, K. A., & Spaulding, L. S. (2008). Is response to intervention good policy for specific learning disability? Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(4), 169 – 179.
Klavir, R., & Gorodetsky, M. (2001). The Processing of analogous problems in the verbal and visualhumorous (Cartoons) modalities by gifted/average children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 45, 205–215.
King, E. W. (2005). Addressing the social and emotional needs of twice-exceptional students. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(1), 16-21.
Lovett, B. J., & Sparks, R. L. (2013). The identification and performance of gifted students with learning disability diagnoses: A quantitative synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46, 304-316.
Mayes, S. D., & Calhoun, S. L. (2006). Frequency of reading, math, and writing disabilities in children with clinical disorders. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(2), 145-157.
McCoach, D. B., Kehle, T. J., Bray, M. A., & Siegle, D. (2001). Best practices in the identification of gifted students with learning disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 38(5), 403-411.
McCallum, R. S., S. M. Bell, J. T. Coles, K. C. Miller, M. B. Hopkins, and A. Hilton-Prillhart. 2013. A model for screening twiceexceptional students (Gifted with learning disabilities) within a response to ıntervention paradigm. Gifted Child Quarterly 57(4), 209–222.
McFarland, J., Hussar, B., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Wang, K., Hein, S., Diliberti, M., Forrest Cataldi, E., Bullock Mann, F., & Barmer, A. (2019). The condition of education 2019 (NCES-144). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
McNamara, J. K., & Wong, B. (2003). Memory for everyday information in students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(5), 394-406.
Melekoglu, M. A. (2011). Impact of motivation to read on reading gains for struggling readers with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 34(4), 248-261.
Melekoğlu, M. A. (2017). Özel öğrenme güçlüğüne giriş. M. A. Melekoğlu ve O. Çakıroğlu (Ed.), Özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan çocuklar, (s. 15-47). Ankara: Vize Yayıncılık.
Morelock, M. J. (1992). Giftedness: The view from within. Understanding Our Gifted, 4(3), 11-15.
National Education Association. (2006). The twice-exceptional dilemma. Washington, DC: Author. http://www.nagc.org/sites/default/files/key%20reports/twiceexceptional.pdf
National Association for Gifted Children. (2013). Ensuring gifted children with disabilities receive appropriate services: Call for comprehensive assessment. https://www.nagc.org/sites/default/files/Position%20Statement/Ensuring%20Gifted%20Children%20with%20Disabilities%20Receive%20Appropriate%20Services.pdf
Navas‐Sánchez, F. J., Alemán‐Gómez, Y., Sánchez‐Gonzalez, J., Guzmán‐De‐Villoria, J. A., Franco, C., Robles, O., ... & Desco, M. (2014). White matter microstructure correlates of mathematical giftedness and intelligence quotient. Human Brain Mapping, 35(6), 2619-2631.
Navas‐Sánchez, F. J., Carmona, S., Alemán‐Gómez, Y., Sánchez‐González, J., Guzmán‐de‐Villoria, J., Franco, C., ... & Desco, M. (2016). Cortical morphometry in frontoparietal and default mode networks in math gifted adolescents. Human Brain Mapping, 37(5), 1893-1902.
Nielsen, M. E. (2002). Gifted students with learning disabilities: Recommendations for identification and programming. Exceptionality, 10, 93–111
Nielsen, M. E., & Higgins, L. D. (2005). The eye of the storm: Services and programs for twice-exceptional learners. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38, 8-15.
Neihart, M. (2008). Identifying and providing services to twice exceptional children. In Handbook of giftedness in children (pp. 115-137). Springer, Boston, MA.
Özmen, R. G. (2008). Öğrenme Güçlüğü Olan Öğrenciler. Diken, İ. H. (Ed.) Özel Eğitime Gereksinimi Olan Öğrenciler ve Özel Eğitim (s. 335-366). Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayınları.
Park, J. P. (2010). Learning disabilities: diseases and disorders. San Diego: ReferencePoint Press, Inc.
Pastor, P. N., & Reuben, C. A. (2008). Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: United States, 2004-2006. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10, Data from the National Health Survey, (237), 1-14.
Pereles, D. A., Omdal, S., & Baldwin, L. (2009). Response to intervention and twice-exceptional learners: A promising fit. Gifted Child Today, 32, 40–51. doi:10.1177/ 107621750903200310
Piechowski, M. M., & Chucker, J. (2011). Overexcitabilities. Encyclopedia of Creativity, 2, 202–208.
Pierangelo, R., & Giuliani, G. (2008). Teaching students with learning disabilities: A step-by-step guide for educators. Corwin Press.
Reis, S. M., Baum, S. M., and Burke, E. (2014). An operational definition of twice-exceptional learners: Implications and applications. Gifted Child Q. 58, 217–230.
Renzulli, J.S. (2005). The three-ring conception of giftedness: A developmental model for promoting creative productivity. In R.J. Sternberg & J. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (2nd ed.) (217-279). Boston: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, S. M. (1999). Meeting the needs of students who are gifted and have learning disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(4), 195-204.
Ruban, L. M., Reis, S.M. (2005). Identification and assessment of gifted students with learning disabilities. Theory into Practice, 44(2), 115-124.
Ruban, L. M. (2005). Identification and assessment of gifted students with learning disabilities. Theory into Practice, 44(2), 115-124.
Sak, U. (2017). Üstün zekalılar. Ankara: Vize Yayıncılık.
Sansom, S. (2015). Gifted students with learning disabilities: A current review of the literature. Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, 1(1), 5-17.
Sideridis, G. D., Morgan, P. L., Botsas, G., Padeliadu, S., & Fuchs, D. (2006). Predicting LD on the basis of motivation, metacognition, and psychopathology: An ROC analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(3), 215-229.
Silverman, L. K. (2003). Gifted children with learning disabilities. In N. A. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (3rd ed., pp. 533–543). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Silverman, L. (2005). The two-edged sword of compensation: How the gifted cope with learning disabilities. In K. Kay (Ed.) (2000). Uniquely gifted: Identifying and meeting the needs of twice exceptional learners (pp. 153-165). Gilsum, NH: Avocus Publishing.
Swanson, L., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2013). Handbook of learning disabilities (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
Şahin, F., & Kargın, T. (2013). Sınıf öğretmenlerine üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin belirlenmesi konusunda verilen bir eğitim programının etkililiği. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 14(2), 1-23.
Tieso, C. L. (2007). Patterns of overexcitabilities in identified gifted students and their parents: a hierarchicalmodel. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(1), 11–22.
van Viersen, S., Kroesbergen, E. H., Slot, E. M., & de Bree, E. H. (2016). High reading skills mask dyslexia in gifted children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(2), 189-199.
Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., & Hickman, P. (2003). Response to instruction as a means of identifying students with reading/learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69(4), 391 – 409.
Walsh, R. L., Hodge, K. A., Bowes, J. M., & Kemp, C. R. (2010). Same age, different page: Overcoming the barriers to catering for young gifted children in prior-to-school settings. International Journal of Early Childhood, 42(1), 43–58.
Watson, S. M., Gable, R. A., & Morin, L. L. (2016). The role of executive functions in classroom instruction of students with learning disabilities. International Journal of School and Cognitive Psychology, 3(167), 1-5. doi:10.4172/2469-9837.1000167
Weinfeld, R., Barnes-Robinson, L., Jeweler, S., & Shevitz, B. R. (2005). What we have learned: Experiences in providing adaptations and accommodations for gifted and talented students with learning disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38, 48–53.
Wong, B. & Butter, D. (2012). Learning about learning disabilities. New York: Elsevier Academic Press.
Wright, B. L., & Ford, D. Y. (2017). Untapped potential: Recognition of giftedness in early childhood and what professionals should know about students of color. Gifted Child Today, 40(2), 111-116.
Yssel, N., C. Adams, L. S. Clarke, and R. Jones. 2014. Applying an RtI model for students with learning disabilities who are gifted. Teaching Exceptional Children, 46(3), 42–52.
Zhang, L., Gan, J. Q., & Wang, H. (2017). Neurocognitive mechanisms of mathematical giftedness: A literature review. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 6(1), 79-94.
Zisimopoulos, D. A., & Galanaki, E. P. (2009). Academic intrinsic motivation and perceived academic competence in Greek elementary students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24(1), 33-43.